CLASSIFICATION SHEET
                                                     FOR IN-SERVICE INSULATING FLUIDS

   OIL                        Dielectric                  > 27KV                                                       Acceptable

                              Water Content                < 35 ppm (69 KV or less)                        Acceptable
                                                                        < 25 ppm (69 KV-288 KV)                       Acceptable
                                                                        < 20 ppm (greater that 228K KV)           Acceptable

                                     IFT                             > 27.1 dynes/cm                                        Acceptable
                                                                           24.0-27.0                                                 Marginal
                                                                           18.0-23.9                                                 Bad
                                                                           14.0-17.9                                                 Very Bad
                                                                           9.0-13.9                                                   Extremely Bad
                                                                        < 8.9                                                            Poor

                             Neutralization#                   0.01-0.10 mg KOH/g                            Good
                                                                           0.05-0.15                                                Marginal        
                                                                           0.16-0.30                                                Bad
                                                                           0.31-0.60                                                Very Bad
                                                                           0.61-1.50                                                Extremely Bad
                                                                        > 1.50                                                         Poor

                                Power Factor                < 0.5%                                                        Acceptable
  
                                     DBPC                        > 0.01%                                                     Acceptable

    
PCB                     Dielectric                  > 27 KV                                                      Acceptable

                              Water Content                < 75 ppm                                                  Acceptable

                               Neutralization#              < 0.040 mg KOH/g sample                   Acceptable

  Silicone                Dielectric                >27 KV                                                     Acceptable
  
                               Water Content                < 100 ppm                                              Acceptable
  
                              Neutralization#               < 0.20 mg KOH/g sample                    Acceptable

    ON –SITE TEST REPORTS
    ABBREVIATIONS
    LIQUID LEVEL

N………………………………………………………………………NORMAL
L……………………………………………………………………….LOW
H………………………………………………………………………HIGH

       
OTHER ACCESS

TIP…………………………………………………………………….TOP INSPECTION PLATE
CT…………………………………………………………………….CONSERVATOR TANK
PT……………………………………………………………………..POP TOP
Exp. Vnt……………………………………………………………..EXPLOSION VENT
Brthr………………………………………………………………….BREATHER
AP…………………………………………………………………….ACCESS PLATE

   COLOR – ASKAREL/SILICONE

WW………………………………………………………………….. WATER WHITE
P/Y…………………………………………………………………… PALE YELLOW
D/Y……………………………………………………………………DARK YELLOW
P/G……………………………………………………………………PALE GREEN
D/G…………………………………………………………………...DARK GREEN
P/B…………………………………………………………………….PALE BLUE
D/B……………………………………………………………………DARK BLUE
PINK…………………………………………………………………..PINK
Amb………………………………………………………………….AMBER

     VISUAL

Clr…………………………………………………………………… CLEAR
Cldy………………………………………………………………… CLOUDY
S/Sd…………………………………………………………………  SLIGHT SEDIMENT
M/Sd………………………………………………………………..  MODERATE SEDIMENT
H/Sd………………………………………………………………… HEAVY SEDIMENT
S/Cb………………………………………………………………… SLIGHT CARBON
M/Cb……………………………………………………………….  MODERATE CARBON
H/Cb………………………………………………………………..  HEAVY CARBON
S/Pt………………………………………………………………….  SLIGHT PARTICULATE
M/Pt………………………………………………………………… MODERATE PARTICULATE
H/Pt…………………………………………………………………  HEAVY PARTICULATE

     CLASS

GOOD………………………………………………………………GOOD
MARG……………………………………………………………….MARGINAL
BAD………………………………………………………………….BAD
V.BAD……………………………………………………………….VERY BAD
EX.BAD………………………………………………………………EXTREMELY BAD
D.F.F………………………………………………………………….DRAIN, FLUSH, FILL
TC…………………………………………………………………….THERMAL CLEAN

         
 DIELECTRIC
F/Wt………………………………………………………….FREE WATER


            
 DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS

IEEE 90% PROBABILITY NORMS (ANSI/IEEE C57.104-1991)
MINERAL OIL FILLED TRANSFORMERS

GAS                                SYMBOL                                TRANSMISSION
                                                                  EQUIPMENT (ppm)

ACETYLENE                    C2H2                                               35
HYDROGEN                     H2                                                    100
METHANE                        CH4                                                  120
ETHANE                           C2H6                                                65
ETHYLENE                      C2H4                                                10
CARBON DIOXIDE         CO                                                    350

KEY COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND GENERATING CONDITIONS

ACETYLENE:                High Energy Arcing
HYDROGEN:                Corona (Partial (Discharge)
                          Electrolysis of Free Water
                          Arcing (If Acetylene is also present)
METHANE:                        Generalized Overheating
                          Secondary Gas
ETHANE:                        Generalized Overheating
                          Secondary Gas
ETHYLENE                        Hot Spot
                          Severe Localized Overheating
CARBON MONOXIDE        Aging/Thermal Decomposition of Cellulose

NON-COMBUSTIBLE GASES

OXYGEN:                Less than 5% of Total – Normal Operation
                           Greater than 5%  -  Check for tightness of Nitrogen Seal

CARBON DIOXIDE: Check Ratio of CO2/CO
                  Ratio less than 7         - Cellulose Breakdown
                  Ratio greater that 7     - Normal
                  (Note: CO> 500 & CO2 > 500 to improve certainty factor)

NITROGEN:                Normal                     

      WHAT IS FURAN ANALYSIS?

  The questions often arise,: what are Furans, and is Furan testing beneficial to my existing preventive maintenance plans?”
The solid insulation of a power transformer consists basically of paper in the form of sheets, tapes and other pressed shapes, Heat,
moisture and oxygen primarily cause degradation (aging) of cellulose insulation, which adversely affects the life if the paper.
Degradation of this paper causes it to lose its tensile strength and results in the release of furans.
  The main goal of furan testing is to determine whether the paper in a given transformer has been or is being damaged by heat.
Furans produced from temperature buildups are generated in two ways; the first being a localized area of high heat and paper
damage, and the second being the general overall heating of the entire transformer. Early detection of paper insulation breakdown
can prevent major damage of failure to you power transformer.
  Before furan analysis, Dissolved Gas Analysis in oil was the only non-invasive test performed on transformers that could indicate
internal problems. By monitoring the ration on CO and CO2 found dissolved in the oil, the paper condition was thought to be
determined. The major disadvantage of this method is that CO & CO2 generation is not entirely s[specific to pare degradation.
  Many customers would like to know the present aged condition of their transformers and be able to estimate life expectancy so that
replacement or repair costs can be managed. The systematic use of furan analysis to monitor paper insulation condition promises
to be a useful and complementary technique to dissolved gas analysis (DGA) and other monitoring techniques. A furan test should
be included with annual oil testing programs and trends developed to monitor the condition of the paper.
  The preferred method of furanic analysis is by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), and ASTM Standard (D5837-95)
has been approved which outlines methodology. It is now possible to measure furanic compounds in the parts per billion levels.
Damage to as little as a few ounces of paper is discernible in an oil sample, even in large transformers.

SUMMARY
1. Furanic compounds are the byproducts if the degradation of the cellulose (paper) insulation.
2. Heat, moisture, and oxygen most often cause paper degradation, with eat being the main factor.
3. Furan Analysis gives an accurate indication of the rate of aging in the insulation system in a transformer.
4. Furan Analysis can help prevent major damage or failure.
5. Furan Analysis can help determine when to rewind or retire a transformer.

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
  0-100 parts per billion = Acceptable
  101-1000 parts per billion = Marginal
  Greater than 1000 parts per billion = Unacceptable

         OIL CLASSIFICATION SHEET















































      TEST METHODS AND INTERPRETATIONS

Dielectric D877
  This test is capable of revealing just two things; the momentary resistance of a liquid sample to the passage of current, and the
relative amount of free water, dirt or conducting particles present in the sample. Although standards vary from system to system,
most systems accept 27 KV or better as good. A lower break is an indication of damp or dirty oil.

Neutralization Number (Acid Content) D974
  The first oxidation product formed in deteriorating oil is peroxide or a series or peroxides. The cellulose of which cotton and paper
are composed react readily with peroxides. The result is oxy-cellulose, a compound which is lacking in mechanical strength.
Embrittlement is the usually applied to the results of attack of peroxides on cellulose. Embrittled insulation cannot withstand the
mechanical shock produced by surges, and the useful life of transformer decreases as this process of embrittlement proceeds. It is
commonly accepted in industry that when the neutralization number exceeds 0.10 mg KOH per gram of oil it is time to take the
corrective action on the oil.



                                                                                        
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